Our Impact


Theory and Measurement of Type 1 and Type 2 Emotions

MediaScience is the leading provider of lab-based media and advertising research, incorporating a range of neuro-measures including biometrics, facial expression analysis, eye tracking, EEG, and more. With state-of-the-art labs in New York, Chicago, and Austin, MediaScience is discovering actionable insights in advertising, technology, media, and consumer trends.

Dr. Duane Varan, the global authority of neuromarketing research, founded Audience Labs (formerly the Interactive Television Research Institute) during his tenure at Murdoch University in Perth, Australia, in 2001. In 2005, he launched the Beyond : 30 Project, a consortium exploring the changing media and advertising landscape, and in 2008, he was approached by Disney Media Networks to set up a dedicated custom research lab on a broader scale – and so MediaScience was born. Though he officially left Murdoch in 2015, he continues to maintain some research links with the University of South Australia and has been widely recognised for his innovative contributions to teaching and the neuromarketing industry as evidenced by a long list of awards and over 90 published academic papers in his field.

Below is an abstract from a paper Dr. Varan oversaw about the Theory and Measurement of Type 1 and Type 2 Emotions from the Australasian Marketing Journal.

Rossiter and Bellman (2005) define two types of emotions, and this article describes how they should be measured. Type 1 emotions (e1) are automatically elicited “basal” emotions that do not require cognitive appraisal—pleasure, arousal, and possibly dominance—which should be measured on a continuous scale. Self-reports are valid although arousal is more reliably measured by skin conductance (GSR). Type 2 emotions (e2) consist of complex, differentiated emotions that do require cognitive appraisal (e.g. love, anger, contempt, empathy, nostalgia, and desire). Since cognitive labelling can show considerable variation, cross-culturally, and individually, type 2 emotions should be measured as binary (present: yes, no), using self-report ratings. A new study by Rossiter and Bellman (2007) demonstrates that binary type 2 emotions reflecting steps of attachment to the brand are important predictors of brand buying and brand loyalty.

Bellman, S. (2007).
Theory and Measurement of Type 1 and Type 2 Emotions
Australasian Marketing Journal, 15 (1), 14-22.